Temple of Augustus Leptis Magna Surrey

The Temple of Augustus: an artificial landscape in Surrey

The Temple of Augustus: How ruins from Libya became the focal point of an artificial landscape in Surrey

Leptis Magna ruins to right of carriage path

 

Walking around the artificial lake of Virginia Water, past the artificial cascade, you come across the ‘Temple of Augustus’, another artificial addition to the royal landscapes of Surrey. But how did these Libyan ruins come to make up part of the grounds of Windsor Great Park?

Bridge adorned with cornice fragments

The city of Leptis Magna was founded in the 7th Century BC and rose to prominence in 193 AD under Emperor Septimius Severus who initiated a programme of enhancement through the provision of incredible docks, and a huge basilica complete with classical style columns. After his death in 211 the city began to decline, with the destructive tsunami of 365 and the invasion of the Vandals in the 5th Century.

1816, Hanmer Warrington arrived in Leptis Magna with friend, Augustus Earle. Only a few years earlier, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin had been hailed a hero by the British government on return from Greece with the stripped marble of the Parthenon, a response Warrington hoped to achieve with his presentation of the Leptis Magna ruins.

Louis XIV had taken 600 columns from the site and installed them in his palace in Versailles in the 17th century, whilst Rouen Cathedral and Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Preps in Paris also sported Leptis columns.

Upon commissioning ships and creating an agreement with the Local Governor, Warrington came across resistance of the local Libyan people. Not a conservation effort, but a local quarrying issue, they defied the removal of the ruins. Cut stone had often been collected from these sites to aid building work whilst round columns were used as mill stones. They took to destroying the collected ruins as they were being loaded onto ships, leading to 3 columns still lying on the beach, having been abandoned by Warrington’s team.

After the destruction was accounted for, Warrington collected a vast collection made up of 25 pedestals, 15 marble columns, 22 granite columns, 10 capitals, 5 inscribed slabs and fragments of stone and sculpture. On arrival in Britain he was met with an unenthusiastic government who it is said were not ‘at all impressed or convinced of the value, either aesthetic or intrinsic, of the cargo.’

Temple of Augustus
Leptis Magna ruins beyond the bridge

Having sat in the forecourt of the British Museum for 8 years, King George IV’s architect, Jeffry Wyatville expressed an interest in using them to create a folly in the grounds of Windsor Castle, which then stretched as far as Virginia Water.

Temple of Augustus
Part of the Temple of Augustus

Named the ‘Temple of Augustus’, possibly as a reference to the King’s full name, George Augustus Frederick, the site consisted of the 15 columns arranged in a semi-circle, and 2 parallel colonnades. Down the centre of the ruins ran a carriage road, allowing King George IV to pass under the road to Ascot. Wyatville placed fragments of cornices along the bridge mimicking an arch in a city wall.

Leptis Magna Ruins

Knowledge of the classics was important in high society, and the introduction of follies, ornamental ruins built to serve purely as landscape features, showed a level of class and sophistication. As William Gilpin, contemporary architect, noted about the importance of a fake authenticity, “if the ivy refuses to mantle over your buttress… you may as well write over the gate, Built in the year 1772.”

Temple of Augustus
Leptis Magna ruins to left of carriage path

 

All pictures taken by Scout Newby.

 

Bibliography

An Unusual Gift (2018) <exploringsurreyspast.org.uk> [accessed 25th July 2020].

Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna <whc.unesco.org> [accessed 25th July 2020].

Bovill, E.W., ‘Colonel Warrington’, The Geographical Journal, Vol.131 (1965), pp.161-166.

Chambers, G.E., ‘The Ruins at Virginia Water’, Berkshire Archaeological Journal, Vol.54 (1954), pp.39-52.

Cooper, P., ‘How Ancient Roman Ruins Ended up 2,000 Miles Away in a British Garden’, The Atlantic, 10th January 2018.

Earle, A., ‘Watercolour of The Ruins at Lebida (Leptis Magna), near Tripoli’, (1793-1838), RCIN 917055 <rct.uk/collection> [accessed 23rd July 2020].

Gilpin, W., Observations on Several Parts of England relative chiefly to Picturesque Beauty (London; Strahan and Prefton, 1808), pp.69-75.

Sham Ruins’, Foll-e, Vol.45 (2012), pp.1-4.

Unknown, ‘The Leptis Magna ruins, Virginia Water’, (c.1865), RCIN 2923207 <rct.uk/collection> [accessed 22nd July 2020]

The Temple of Augustus (2019) <odddaysout.co.uk> [accessed 20th July 2020].

Lane, A., ‘The Ruins of Virginia Water’, Libyan Studies (Cambridge; Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp.67-94.


The settlement of Europe could be the result of several immigration waves by a single population

The settlement of Europe could be the result of several immigration waves by a single population

The CENIEH conducts the morphological and metric analysis of the lower molars in the mandible from Montmaurin-La Niche (France) using micro-computed tomography, to study the origin of the Neanderthals.
settlement Europe immigration population
Montmaurin-La Niche mandible/M. Martínez de Pinillos

The Dental Anthropology Group of the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH), in collaboration with the paleoanthropologist Amélie Vialet of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) in Paris, has just published a detailed external and internal study of the molars in the mandible from the French site of Montmaurin-La Niche in the Journal of Human Evolution, whose results strengthen the hypothesis that the settlement of Europe could have been the result of several waves of migration at different times by a common source population.

The aim in this paper, led by the researchers Marina Martínez de Pinillos (CENIEH) and Laura Martín-Francés (CENIEH and PACEA-University of Bordeaux), is to shed light on the origin of the Neanderthals. The latest data obtained from paleontological and geomorphological studies place the Montmaurin-La Niche mandible in a chronologically intermediate position between the fossils of the Middle Pleistocene and the Neanderthals.

The micro-computed axial tomography (microCT) technique has enabled the molars in this mandible to be compared with the external and internal structures of over 400 other molars from the European, Asian and African Pleistocene and Holocene.

This exhaustive metric and morphological analysis has revealed that, while the mandible is more closely related to African and Eurasian populations from the Early and Middle Pleistocene, the enamel and dentine morphology and pulp cavity proportions are similar to those in Neanderthals. “Nevertheless, the absolute and relative enamel thickness values (2D and 3D) show greater affinity with those exhibited by certain Early Pleistocene hominins”, says Martínez de Pinillos.

Possible hybridization

Over recent decades, finds of human fossil remains from the European Middle Pleistocene have prompted the debate on the evolutionary scenario of the genus Homo on that continent to be reopened. “The great variability we find among the European Middle Pleistocene fossils cannot be ignored in studying human evolution on our continent”, states Martín-Francés.

This variability in European Middle Pleistocene populations could indicate different migrations at different times and/or fragmentation of the population, thought it might also be due to possible hybridization between residents and new settlers.

Montmaurin-La Niche mandible/M. Martínez de Pinillos

Full bibliographic information

Martínez de Pinillos, M., Martín-Francés, L., Bermúdez de Castro, J. M., García-Campos, C., Modesto-Mata, M., Martinón-Torres, M., & Vialet, A. (2020). Inner morphological and metric characterization of the molar remains from the Montmaurin-La Niche mandible: the Neanderthal signal. Journal of Human Evolution, 145, 102739. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.102739.
Press release on the settlement of Europe due to immigration waves from a common source population from CENIEH

Notre Dame acoustics

Reconstructing the Acoustics of Notre Dame

Reconstructing the Acoustics of Notre Dame

Notre Dame acoustics
Brian FG Katz and colleagues set up an artificial head to take acoustical measurements at Notre Dame in 2013. Image by Brian FG Katz/CNRS

The April 15 fire that devastated the roof of the 850-year-old Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral left many people around the globe wondering whether it’s possible to rebuild it in a way that can recreate the cultural icon’s complex signature acoustics.

Other cathedrals may seem to have similar acoustics, but no two are the same in the way sound soars and reverberates inside. Myriad nuances and details are unique -- many of which are likely to change during the course of centuries as furnishings and renovations evolve.

Six years ago, on April 24, 2013, Brian FG Katz, a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America and CNRS research director at Sorbonne Université, and colleagues obtained detailed measurements of the acoustics of the main space within Notre Dame.

Those measurements and the methods his team used to obtained them were detailed in several publications in the ASA's flagship publication, the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, and one of Katz's students is presenting some of the work later this month at the 177th Meeting of Acoustical Society of America in Louisville, Kentucky.

These measurements hold new significance now, Katz said. They document the acoustic conditions of the cathedral before the fire and can be used during its restoration. He is available to answer questions from reporters about the work and reconstructing the complex acoustics of Notre Dame.

“The acoustics of worship spaces has long been a topic of interest and is an active area of study right now,” said Katz. “Acoustics within churches and places of worship, in general, vary greatly with the associated religious practices. Some emphasize the intelligibility of the spoken word, while others focus on the ritual aspects and musical nature. A grand church organ, for example, played within a dry room suited to speech can sound more like an accordion -- without the reverberation mixing effect of the acoustics.”

How they captured the acoustics of Notre Dame

“The basic practice of measuring the acoustics of rooms is common across spaces,” Katz said. “We don’t use any special cathedral protocols. But for the long reverberation time and the considerable volume, we had to work to get our signal-to-noise level to an adequate level.”

Measurements were made using a collection of omnidirectional, 3D (first order ambisonic), and dummy head (binaural) microphones. Several dodecahedron loudspeakers were situated at key positions inside the cathedral, representing either typical source positions or those measurement positions of a series of measurements carried out by the same lab in 1987.

“We also included several balloon bursts as a safeguard, well aware of their acoustic limitations,” Katz said. That work was published in 2011 in JASA (see https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.3518780).

The researchers use mostly pro-audio hardware because it often provides a better signal-to-noise ratio and the installation is easier than laboratory measurement equipment.

“Technically speaking, we used a 20-second exponential sweep-sine signal, or chip, and deconvolution to obtain the room impulse response. This response, or the acoustic signature, for each source/receiver pair in effect characterizes how the room transforms the sound from source to receiver,” Katz said. “Once set up, the measurements took a little more than one hour and mostly involved moving microphones around.”

Getting access to iconic sites like Notre Dame is always difficult, and the time inside to record measurements always goes by fast. “One advantage of such a space is the relatively flat floor, which allowed us to have the majority of our equipment on a cart that can be rolled down the aisle,” Katz said. “This is in stark contrast to when we do measurements within concert halls with different levels and balconies.”

"Reverberant energy" -- Notre Dame's full sound

With a 6-second reverberation time at mid-frequencies, Katz describes Notre Dame’s sound as being “as full as you can imagine, with the reverberant energy coming from all around. As you move within the space, the acoustics varies due to changes in ceiling height, for example. This is very noticeable and can be heard on our online simulation example as you travel around the cathedral.”

From the measurements and other documentation they were able to obtain at Notre Dame, Katz and colleagues created a geometrical acoustic room model and calibrated it to the measured responses’ acoustic parameters using CATT-Acoustics (http://www.catt.se), a numerical simulation software used by acoustic consultants. That work was published in JASA in 2016 (see https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.4971422).

“Using this model, we simulated new room impulse responses that correspond to an orchestra configuration of a close-mic recording session made within the cathedral by the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse de Paris (CNSMDP), a college of music and dance,” Katz explained. “By feeding these recordings to the appropriate source positions in the model, we were able to recreate the acoustic performance of this concert -- allowing the listener to move within the cathedral to explore and experience the complex acoustics of this large and historic space.” They described this work in JASA in 2017 (see https://asa.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1121/1.4987161).

For these simulations, “the sheer size and long reverberation time of the cathedral means longer calculation times, longer impulse responses, longer processing times, and more computational requirements,” Katz added. “These demands were far beyond what we experienced with other sites, and small fluctuations in air temperature resulted in misalignment of impulse responses. This, in turn, resulted in artificially reduced reverberation times for averaged measurements, so we developed a method to correct for it that can also be used as a way to measure small changes in mean temperature” -- work published in 2016 (see https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.4955006).

Play it forward: The reconstruction of Notre Dame

How can Katz’s acoustic measurements help with the reconstruction of Notre Dame Cathedral? First, the existence of acoustic documentation of the cathedral is a huge benefit.

“It can help during renovation works when considering how the impact of any choices might change the acoustics, such as choice of materials,” Katz said. “It’s not clear yet what state the interior finishes are in, but the wooden panels and paintings within the cathedral are not at all insignificant when it comes to acoustics. Compared to the raw stone structure, these small elements act as possible acoustic absorption and diffusion and can have significant impacts on the resulting acoustics.”

The second benefit is virtual reconstruction -- essentially providing a way for people to listen to performances within the “lost” acoustics. “This could be via working with the CNSMDP to process the full recording of the concert we presented an excerpt of on YouTube, or to process other recordings made using the same procedure. This approach can also be used to listen to ‘new’ performances within the cathedral that never occurred there -- enabling even live performances to be broadcast as a concert within the virtual Notre Dame. These could be of interest during the reconstruction, while the building is inaccessible to the public.”

 

Press release from the American Institute of Physics


Balak Mesha Stele

New reading of Mesha Stele could have far-reaching consequences for biblical history

New reading of Mesha Stele could have far-reaching consequences for biblical history

The biblical King Balak may have been a historical figure, according to a new reading of the Mesha Stele, an inscribed stone dating from the second half of the 9th century BCE

Balak Mesha Stele
Mesha Stele (Moabite Stone), plaster replica of the basalt original in the Louvre, Dhiban, Jordan, Iron Age IIB, c. 830 BC - Oriental Institute Museum, University of Chicago, Photo Daderot,CC0 

The biblical King Balak may have been a historical figure, according to a new reading of the Mesha Stele, an inscribed stone dating from the second half of the 9th century BCE.

A name in Line 31 of the stele, previously thought to read , 'House of David', could instead read 'Balak', a king of Moab mentioned in the biblical story of Balaam (Numbers 22-24), say archaeologist Prof. Israel Finkelstein and historians and biblical scholars Prof. Nadav Na'aman and Prof. Thomas Römer, in an article published in Tel Aviv: The Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University.

The Mesha Stele was found in the 19th century in the ruins of the biblical town of Dibon in Moab (present day Jordan), and is now in the Louvre. The stone's inscription tells the story of the territorial expansion and construction endeavours of King Mesha of Moab, who is mentioned in the Bible. The stele was cracked in the 19th century and parts of it are missing, but portions of the missing parts are preserved in a reverse copy of the inscription, known as a 'squeeze', made before the stele cracked.

The authors studied new high-resolution photographs of the squeeze, and of the stele itself. These new images made it clear that there are three consonants in the name of the monarch mentioned in Line 31, and that the first is the Hebrew letter beth (a 'b' sound).

While the other letters are eroded, the most likely candidate for the monarch's name is 'Balak', the authors say. The seat of the king referred to in Line 31 was at Horonaim, a place mentioned four times in the Bible in relation to the Moabite territory south of the Arnon River. "Thus, Balak may be a historical personality like Balaam, who, before the discovery of the Deir Alla inscription, was considered to be an 'invented' figure," they suggest.

"The new photographs of the Mesha Stele and the squeeze indicate that the reading, 'House of David' - accepted by many scholars for more than two decades - is no longer an option," the authors conclude. "With due caution we suggest the name of the Moabite king Balak, who, according to the Balaam story of Numbers 22-24, sought to bring a divine curse on the people of Israel.

"This story was written down later than the time of the Moabite king referred to in the Mesha Stele. Yet, to give a sense of authenticity to his story, its author must have integrated into the plot certain elements borrowed from the ancient reality, including two personal names: Balaam and Balak."

 

Press release from Taylor & Francis Group

 

New reading of the Mesha Stele inscription has major consequences for biblical history

Line of the inscription lends credence to the story of Balaam in the Book of Numbers, Tel Aviv University researchers say

 

The legendary King Balak from the Book of Numbers may have been a real historical figure, according to a new reading of the Mesha Stele, the longest extra-biblical inscription in existence.

The Mesha Stele, an ancient inscribed stone dating to the ninth century BCE, tells the story of the territorial expansion and construction endeavors of King Mesha of Moab, who is also mentioned in the Second Book of Kings in the Old Testament. The stele was found in the 19th century among the ruins of the ancient town of Dibon in Moab, located in today's Jordan, east of the Dead Sea. The stele is on display at the Louvre Museum.

According to the study, a word on Line 31 of the stele that has until now been interpreted as "House of David" in fact refers to King "Balak," who is known as a Moab ruler only from the Book of Numbers.

The new Tel Aviv University-Collège de France study was published on May 2 in Tel Aviv: Journal of the Institute of Archaeology of Tel Aviv University. It was co-authored by Prof. Israel Finkelstein and Prof. Nadav Na'aman of TAU's Department of Archaeology and Ancient Near Eastern Cultures in collaboration with Prof. Thomas Römer of Collège de France and the University of Lausanne.

A recent exhibit, Mésha et la Bible, held in October 2018 at the Collège de France in Paris in conjunction with the Louvre Museum, showcased the Meshe Stele "squeeze," a reverse copy of the inscription on paper. This exhibition afforded researchers the unique opportunity to take high-resolution photographs of the squeeze.

Although the stele had been cracked in the 19th century, the parts that went missing were preserved in the squeeze, which was made before the stone broke into pieces.

The authors of the new research studied new high-resolution photographs of the squeeze and of the stele itself. These new images made it clear that there are three consonants in the name of the monarch mentioned in Line 31, and that the first is the Hebrew letter bet, which corresponds to the English letter "B."

The most likely candidate for the monarch's name is "Balak." The seat of the king referred to in Line 31 was "Horonaim," which is mentioned four times in the Bible in relation to the Moabite territory south of the Arnon River.

"We believe Balak was a historical figure like Balaam, who, before the discovery of the famous Deir Alla inscription in Jordan in 1967, was considered an 'invented' character," explains Prof. Finkelstein. "The new photographs of the Mesha Stele and the squeeze indicate that the reading 'House of David' -- accepted by many scholars for more than two decades -- is no longer valid."

In 1994 the French epigrapher André Lemaire suggested that letters missing in Line 31 of the stele would spell "House of David," as in the Tel Dan Stele, which features the term in reference to the Kingdom of Judah. Accordingly, Lemaire proposed that in the mid-ninth century Judah ruled in southern Moab, east of the Dead Sea.

"With due caution, we suggest that the line refers to the Moabite King Balak, who, according to the Balaam story in Numbers 22-24, was supposed to bring a divine curse on the people of Israel," Prof. Na'aman says.

"The biblical story was written down later than the time of the Moabite king referred to in the Mesha Stele," Prof. Römer adds. "But to proffer a sense of authenticity to his story, its author must have integrated into the plot certain elements borrowed from ancient reality, including the names Balaam and Balak."

###

American Friends of Tel Aviv University supports Israel's most influential, comprehensive and sought-after center of higher learning, Tel Aviv University (TAU). TAU is recognized and celebrated internationally for creating an innovative, entrepreneurial culture on campus that generates inventions, startups and economic development in Israel. TAU is ranked ninth in the world, and first in Israel, for producing start-up founders of billion-dollar companies, an achievement that surpassed several Ivy League universities. To date, 2,500 US patents have been filed by Tel Aviv University researchers -- ranking TAU #1 in Israel, #10 outside of the US and #43 in the world.

 

Press release from the American Friends of the Tel Aviv University


The exhibition ‘Tutankhamun, treasures of the Golden Pharaoh’ in Paris

TUTANKHAMUN’S PRICELESS TREASURES WILL RETURN TO PARIS FOR THE FIRST TIME
IN A GENERATION WITH ‘TUTANKHAMUN, TREASURES OF THE GOLDEN PHARAOH’

23 March to 15 September 2019 - Grande Halle de la Villette, Paris, France

Paris, 29 November 2018 - Celebrating the 100-year anniversary of the discovery of his tomb, the new Tutankhamun, Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh exhibition has opened in Paris on 23 March 2019. More than 50 years after his treasures attracted more than 1.2 million visitors to the ‘exhibition of the century’ in Paris in 1967, this is a unique opportunity to rediscover the legend, before the artefacts are permanently housed in the Grand Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

Presented by the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities and IMG at the Grande Halle de la Villette, in collaboration with the Louvre in an advisory role, the exhibition’s curated collection features more than 150 original artefacts from Tutankhamun’s tomb including a number of the young sovereign’s personal objects that accompanied him in both life and death: gold jewellery, sculptures and ceremonial objects. FedEx, the tour’s official logistics provider, will utilise its global network to transport the artefacts, including more than 50 items that will be visible for the first time outside of Egypt.

While the Pharaohs that succeeded Tutankhamun almost managed to erase him from the history books, he became headline news around the world when his tomb was found untouched in 1922 by the British archaeologist and Egyptologist Howard Carter. Had he not made this discovery, which brought fame to two men who lived 3,400 years apart, the 18th dynasty Pharaoh could have been forgotten completely.

Tutankhamun, Treasures of the Golden Pharaoh Grande Halle de la Villette Paris exhibition
Wooden Ceremonial Shield with King as
Sphinx Trampling on Nubian Enemies
GEM 341
18th dynasty, reign of Tutankhamun,
1336 - 1326 B.C.
Wood, Stucco, Gold Leaf, Ebony Inlaid
Luxor, Valley of the Kings, KV62, Annex. © Laboratoriorosso, Viterbo/Italy

To celebrate the 100th year anniversary of discovering the tomb of the Boy King Tutankhamun, Egypt is sending 150 masterpieces to tour all over the world. We invite people to come and see them, before they return to Egypt,” said Dr. Mostafa Waziry, Secretary General of the Ministry of State for Antiquities, Egypt.

By reviving the legend of the Pharaoh covered with gold in a very potent way, the discovery of Tutankhamun’s unplundered tomb, almost one hundred years ago, revived our fascination with Egypt and its buried treasure. It is a pleasure to collaborate in bringing the legend of Tutankhamun and these extremely rare objects from the Cairo Museum for this historic and final return to Paris, and inspiring wonder in a new generation,” said Vincent Rondot, Director of the Department of Egyptian Antiquities, the Louvre.

Gilded Wooden Bed
GEM 14276
18th dynasty, reign of Tutankhamun,
1336 - 1326 B.C.
Wood, stucco, gold foil
Length: 180,5 cm
Width: 79,5 cm
Maximum height: 71 cm
Luxor, Valley of the Kings, KV62, Annex. © Laboratoriorosso, Viterbo/Italy

For ancient Egyptians, death was also considered to be a new birth. However, this life after death was only possible if the body was preserved and underwent the right rituals. To ensure this post mortem rebirth and survival in the afterlife, the ancient Egyptians created a whole host of rituals, objects, images and texts that can be found inside and on the walls of the tomb. Visitors to the exhibition will follow Tutankhamun’s journey into everlasting life, discovering along the way what each funerary object was used for on this perilous journey, as well as the story of one of the key discoveries in modern archeology. As they explore the exhibition, visitors will be perpetuating the memory of the Pharaoh and his immortality.

The god Amun protecting Tutankhamun
Diorite, 1336-1326 BC
Department of Egyptian Antiquities,
Musée du Louvre
© Musée du Louvre, dist. RMN – Grand Palais /
Christian Descamps

In addition to accompanying the project, the Louvre Department of Egyptian Antiquities will lend one of its own masterpieces: the statue of the god Amun protecting Tutankhamun, and is setting up a special “Valley of the Kings” itinerary in its permanent collection.

The 100th anniversary of one of the greatest archaeological discoveries in history inspired us to create an exhibition like none before. As millions of people around the world get the opportunity to see these ancient objects in an immersive and personal context, we know Tutankhamun’s place in people’s imaginations will be secure for generations to come,” said John Norman, Managing Director, Exhibitions, IMG.

Colossal Quartzite Statue of Tutankhamun,
Usurped by Ay and Horemheb
GEM 2223
18th dynasty, reign of Tutankhamun,
1336 - 1326 B.C.
Quartzite
Luxor, Medinet Habu, Temple of Ay and Horemheb. © Laboratoriorosso, Viterbo/Italy

At the conclusion of the exhibition’s 10-city world tour, the items will go on permanent display at the Grand Egyptian Museum being constructed in Cairo. The money raised from this exhibition will provide financial support to the Grand Egyptian Museum and to archaeological sites in Egypt.

The Grand Egyptian Museum will be situated adjacent to the Giza Plateau within 2.5 kilometres of the Giza pyramids. Once completed it will be a world-leading scientific, historical and archaeological study center that will cover approximately 3,000 years of ancient Egyptian history and house more than 100,000 artefacts. This stunning location will serve as a backdrop to a display of priceless artefacts, including the final resting place of the Tutankhamun collection. The Giza Plateau is a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site. Aside from the pyramids, it is home to the Giza Necropolis and the Great Sphinx.