Environmental and climatic changes influenced the origin of the genus 'Homo'

Environmental and climate changes influenced the origin of the genus 'Homo'

CENIEH participates in a study on Mille-Logya, a new site located in the emblematic Afar region (Ethiopia), which reinforces the relationship between the origin of the Homo genus and the climatic and environmental changes that took place on the African continent between 2.5 and 3 million years ago
climatic changes Homo Mille-Logya
Hominin remains from the MLP area. Credits: Z. Alemseged et al

Several hypothesis suggest a link between the origin of the genus Homo and the climatic and environmental changes that took place in Africa between 2.5 and 3 million years ago. The geological and paleontological analyses of a new site, Mille-Logya, located in the emblematic region of Afar (Ethiopia) where the species Australopithecus afarensis was found, reinforces with new data these hypothesis.

A new study, published in Nature communication by an international team led by Zeresenay Alemseged from the University of Chicago, and with the participation of the geochronologist from the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH), Mark Jan Sier, reports the finding of four hominin remains (two ulnae fragments, a calvarium fragment and an upper second molar) together with a large sample of faunal remains that include hypopothamus, bovids, giraffes, crocodiles, hyenas and horses.

The fossil samples come from three different areas, Gafura, Seraitu and Uraitele dated from 2.4 to 2.9 million years. “This site represents a unique opportunity to study fossils from an age range that normally is missing in the Afar area”, says Mark Jan Sier, from the Geochronology and Geology Programme of CENIEH and who contributed to the dating of the site with the paleomagnetic analysis.

The comparison of the fauna from the three different areas within Mille-Logya, as well as with that found in the nearby localities of Hadar and Dikika, where famous Australopithecus afarensis samples were found, suggests an important faunal and paleoenvironmental change during this period in this region of Africa.

The faunal and paleoenvironmental reconstructions suggest that the earliest members of Homo were associated with more open environments than Australopithecus was. The in situ faunal change at Mille-logya may be linked to environmental and climatic factors that may have caused Homo to emerge in from Australopithecus or to migrate to the region as part of a fauna adapted to more open habitats.

Full bibliographic information

Alemseged, Z., Wynn, J. G., Geraads, D., Reed, D., Barr, W. A., Bobe, R., McPherron, S. P., Deino, A., Alene, M., Sier, M. J., Roman, D., & Mohan, J. (2020). Fossils from Mille-Logya, Afar, Ethiopia, elucidate the link between Pliocene environmental changes and Homo origins. Nature Communications, 11, 2480. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-16060-8.
Press release from CENIEH

The Met Acquires Works by Pakistani Artist Lala Rukh

Lala Rukh
(New York, January 9, 2020)—The Metropolitan Museum of Art announced today the acquisition of two important works by the Pakistani artist and activist Lala Rukh (Lahore, 1948–2017): the collage Mirror Image, 1, 2, 3 (1997) and the digital animation Rupak (2016). The works were purchased by the Museum with funds from the Tia Collection, part of the private foundation's commitment to enabling the acquisition of works by South Asian female artists for The Met's Department of Modern and Contemporary Art. The Tia Collection's support of the Museum began in 2018 with the gift of Ranjani Shettar's installation Seven ponds and a few raindrops (2017).
The Met also announced that the Estate of Lala Rukh has gifted the Museum a group of six posters to compliment the acquisition of Mirror Image, 1, 2, 3 and Rupak. Rukh created the posters, which call for the equal rights and freedom of women, during her years with the Women's Action Forum (WAF), the Pakistani women's rights organization that she co-founded.
"These powerful works by Lala Rukh add great strength to our holdings of contemporary art from South Asia, and we are extremely grateful to the Tia Collection for their generous support and commitment to the Museum," said Max Hollein, Director of The Met. "We also thank the Lala Rukh Estate for their important gift, which further enhances our understanding of Rukh's practice."
The Met is the first museum in the United States to acquire Rukh's work. Considered one of Rukh's most important pieces, Mirror Image 1, 2, 3 (1997) was made in response to the aftermath and ensuing communal violence following the destruction of the Babri Masjid Mosque in Ayodhya, India, in 1992, including the riots that took place for years in cities such as Mumbai, Dhaka, and Lahore. To create Mirror Image, Rukh cut out newspaper images of the riots and acts of damage and then blackened them, using charcoal and other media, thus abstracting the images, and finally attached them in pairs to sheets of grid paper. The gesture of obfuscating the imagery was her riposte to the negative and propagandist impact that such widely circulated images could have.
The single-channel video Rupak (2016), the artist's final work, is the culmination of her abiding preoccupation with Hindustani classical music, a source of inspiration throughout her career. Commissioned for Documenta 14, Rupak is a stop-motion animation built around the percussive scheme of a Hindustani classical taal called rupak, which has a seven-beat structure. Rukh collaborated with composer musician Sunny Justin to compose the 12-second rupak taal table solo that forms the basis of the animation. Once the score was completed, Rukh devised her own method of transcribing the beats to paper. Over a two-month period, she would draw and re-draw the sounds of the rupak taal on a grid in a dot-based system. She made these dots using the angled tip of aqalam (a dried reed pen used in calligraphy). Rukh completed a set of 88 drawings that were then scanned and animated, with her marks coalescing as a single white dot that moves rhythmically along the screen.

About the Artist

Born in Lahore, Pakistan, Lala Rukh was raised in a progressive and liberal household that instilled in her the political awareness that came to inform aspects of her practice in later years. She received her MFA from Punjab University in Lahore and then from the University of Chicago in 1976. Her time in the United States had an important impact on her art and activism, exposing her to the practices of artists such as Robert Rauschenberg, John Baldessari, and Christo as well as a collaborative performance by Merce Cunningham and John Cage. She returned to Lahore in 1977, a time of an increasingly oppressive environment for women and severe Islamization under the military dictatorship of General Zia Ul Haq. As a result, Rukh involved herself with the women's movement and co-founded the Women's Action Forum (WAF), commencing a life-long commitment to political activism. She taught for 30 years at Punjab University, in the Department of Fine Art, and the National College of Arts, retiring near the end of her life. Alongside her teaching and activism, she maintained a rigorous studio practice.
About the Tia Collection
 
The Tia Collection is an international, private collection of modern and contemporary art based in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The Tia Collection is committed to supporting The Met in strengthening its holdings of South Asian art, with a particular focus on female artists.

Press release from the Metropolitan Museum of Art.


Mesopotamian King Sargon II envisioned ancient city Karkemish as western Assyrian capital

Mesopotamian King Sargon II envisioned ancient city Karkemish as western Assyrian capital

Karkemish Sargon II Assyria
Sargon II (left) faces a high-ranking official, possibly Sennacherib his son and crown prince. 710–705 BC. From Khorsabad, Iraq. The British Museum, London. Picture by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg), CC BY-SA 4.0

In "A New Historical Inscription of Sargon II from Karkemish," published in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Gianni Marchesi translates a recently discovered inscription of the Assyrian King Sargon II found at the ruins of the ancient city of Karkemish. The inscription, which dates to around 713 B.C., details Sargon's conquest, occupation, and reorganization of Karkemish, including his rebuilding the city with ritual ceremonies usually reserved for royal palaces in capital cities. The text implies that Sargon may have been planning to make Karkemish a western capital of Assyria, from which he could administer and control his empire's western territories.

The cuneiform inscription was found on fragments from three different clay cylinders in 2015 as part of the Nicolò Marchetti-led Turco-Italian Archaeological Expedition at Karkemish. Now in ruins, the site is located on the Euphrates river on the border between present day Syria and Turkey.

Marchesi analyzed and translated the total of thirty-eight lines of partially broken Akkadian text, using reference material, academic literature and other inscribed Assyrian artifacts as reference points for filling in the gaps. The lines of text ranged from two-thirds complete to much less, and no line of text was completely intact.

"Even so, we can grasp much of the original text, which turns out to be very informative," Marchesi writes. "In fact, unlike other Sargon cylinders, which contain relatively standard 'summary' inscriptions or annalistic accounts of the events of Sargon's reign, the Karkemish Cylinder provides us with a completely new inscription, dealing almost exclusively with the newly conquered city on the Euphrates in a highly-elaborated, literary style."

In the inscription, Sargon tells of the "betrayal" of Pisiri, the Hittite King of Karkemish who exchanged hostile words about Assyria with its enemy, King Midas of Phrygia. Sargon invades Karkemish, deports Pisiri and his supporters, destroys his palace, seizes his riches as booty and incorporates Pisiri's army into his own. He resettles the city with Assyrians. Having previously blocked the water supply to Karkemish, the meadows "let go fallow, like a wasteland," Marchesi translates, he now reactivates the irrigation system, planting orchards and botanical gardens. "I made the scent of the city sweeter than the scent of a cedar forest."

He also details an inauguration ceremony where he received gifts from Assyrian provinces and sacrifices them to deities. "My lords the gods Karhuha and Kubaba, who dwell in Karkemish, I invited them into my palace," Marchesi translates. "Strong rams of the stable, geese, ducks and flying birds of the sky I offered before them."

Marchesi was struck by the attention that Sargon paid to Karkemish, in particular the elaborate inauguration ceremony and construction of botanical gardens, both indicative not of a typical provincial capital but of a royal palace.

"Because of its glorious past and strategic position, Karkemish was fully entitled to become a sort of western capital of the Assyrian Empire: a perfect place in which to display the grandeur of Assyria, and from which to control the western and north-western territories of the empire," Marchesi writes.

This vision of Karkemish was short-lived, however. Though much care was taken to detail the city's rise in these texts, the city is not mentioned in any known inscriptions of Sargon's successors.

"The unthinkable, ominous death of Sargon on the battlefield in Tabal probably prevented this project from being accomplished, and negatively marked the destiny of Karkemish itself, which no longer attracted the interest of Assyrian kings who followed after him," Marchesi writes.

 

The Journal of Near Eastern Studies is devoted to the study of the civilizations of the Near East from prehistory to the end of the Ottoman period in 1922. The disciplinary range of the journal runs from history and language to religion and literature to archaeology and art history.

 

Press release from University of Chicago Press Journals