Thomas Becket 2020

Thomas Becket 2020: a year-long programme of events for the 850th anniversary of his murder

2020 programme commemorating the murder of Thomas Becket unveiled

  • 2020 is the 850th anniversary of the murder of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury
  • Year-long programme of Becket2020 events unveiled
  • British Museum to host first ever major UK exhibition on Thomas Becket’s life, death and legacy
Thomas Becket 2020
Reliquary, Limoges, c. 1200. The image on the front panel shows the murder of Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral. © The Trustees of the British Museum

A year-long programme of events marking the 850th anniversary of one of the most shocking crimes in European history, the murder of Thomas Becket, are unveiled today. ‘Becket2020’ will see venues in London, Canterbury and beyond host a range of events across the year to commemorate his murder - a moment which changed the course of history. The programme includes performances, pageants, talks, film screenings and religious services, and culminates in the first ever major UK exhibition to explore Becket’s life, death and legacy which will open at the British Museum in October.

Thomas Becket 2020
A second Reliquary, Limoges, c. 1200. The image on the front panel shows the murder of Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral. © The Trustees of the British Museum

Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered on 29 December 1170 – 849 years ago tomorrow. He was killed in Canterbury Cathedral by four knights with close ties to his former friend King Henry II, as eye-witnesses looked on. Becket was quickly canonised a saint by the Pope and his shrine at Canterbury became a major centre of European pilgrimage before being destroyed on the orders of Henry VIII in the early years of the English Reformation. In both the Roman Catholic and Anglican Church he is recognised as a saint and a martyr.

Canterbury Cathedral at night – © Canterbury Cathedral

In 2020, Canterbury will be the centre of activity celebrating Becket. A major new production of T. S. Eliot’s Murder in the Cathedral will be performed for the first time in Canterbury Cathedral in October and is a joint initiative with The Marlowe Theatre. The Cathedral will also host a special choral evensong service to commemorate Becket’s martyrdom on the 29 December 2020. Elsewhere in the city, other highlights include Saint Thomas Becket – World Celebrity Healer at The Beaneya community creative project focusing on mental and physical health and wellbeing in the context of Becket’s fame. In July, Canterbury’s fifth annual Medieval Pageant and Trail will take place, and this year commemorates Henry ll’s pilgrimage to Canterbury to perform penance for his association with the murder of Becket.

Thomas Becket 2020
Pilgrim badge from the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. This badge depicts the scene of Becket’s martyrdom. © Museum of London.

London, the city of Becket’s birth, will also host a range of important events. Thomas Becket (title tbc) at the British Museum will be the first time Becket’s life, death and legacy has been explored in a major exhibition in the UK. Opening in October, it will showcase an incredible array of over 100 objects associated with Becket, including manuscripts, jewellery, sculpture, stained glass and paintings, and will feature artefacts from the Museum’s collection as well as important loans from the UK and around the world. It will present Becket’s tumultuous journey: from London-merchant’s son to Archbishop; and from a revered saint in death, to a ‘traitor’ in the eyes of Henry VIII, over 350 years later. Highlights include a number of beautiful sacred reliquaries which once contained precious relics of Thomas Becket. These were taken across Continental Europe and speak to the profound international spread of his cult.

Thomas Becket 2020
Pilgrim badge, pewter, a standing figure of St Thomas Becket, wearing archbishop's vestments and holding a cross-staff.  Becket's shrine at Canterbury was the most popular in England.  14th century. © Museum of London.

Also in the capital, The Museum of London will display a selection of their extraordinary collection of pilgrim badges. For over 300 years, Londoners flocked to Becket's shrine in Canterbury often returning with a badge as a keepsake. The Museum of London will use examples to illustrate Becket’s extraordinary life and his connections to the capital. Visitors will be encouraged to undertake their own mini-pilgrimage through the museum’s Medieval London Gallery from 14 February to October 2020. In June, the Becket Pageant for London will be a landmark community project centred around a new 70-minute stage-work and set against the iconic backdrop of medieval Guildhall Yard. The event will seek to re-imagine the only known Becket pageant, performed in London in 1519, and will be a playful musical entertainment for a modern audience. His Grace The Most Reverend and Right Honourable Justin Welby, The Archbishop of Canterbury, will preach at Southwark Cathedral in December 2020, in commemoration of Thomas Becket's final sermon which took place at the same site shortly before his death. The Cathedral will also host an art installation by artist Michelle Rumney during Lent.

Naomi Speakman, co-curator of Thomas Becket at the British Museum, said: “the story of Thomas Becket’s life, death and legacy has all the hallmarks of a Game of Thrones plot. There’s drama, fame, royalty, power, envy, retribution, and ultimately a brutal murder that shocked Europe. These events had repercussions that have echoed out through time, and we’re delighted to be telling this important story for the first time in a major exhibition.”

Thomas Becket (title tbc) is at the British Museum from 15 October 2020 until 14 February 2021.

Canterbury Cathedral – © Canterbury Cathedral

Becket2020 programme of events.

This is a draft programme of events, to which others are in the process of being added, based on information derived from partners.

Canterbury Cathedral will take the lead on the leaflet and website for Becket 2020.

Events:

23 January - 'Lecture: 'Thomas Becket and the Young Henry III' by Professor David Carpenter, Professor of Medieval History (King’s College London)

7.00pm Claggett Auditorium, Canterbury Cathedral Lodge.

Free to Historical Association members and students; £3 for others

14 February (to October) – Becket 2020 pilgrim badge display at the Museum of London (free)

St Thomas Becket is an internationally renowned figure but his connections to London are rather less well-known. For over 300 years, Londoners flocked to Becket's shrine in Canterbury often returning with a pewter badge as a keepsake. Hundreds of these pilgrim souvenirs have been recovered from London excavations and mudlarking activity along the Thames and the museum holds the largest collection in the country.

The Museum of London will use some of its pilgrim badges to illustrate St Thomas Becket’s extraordinary life and his connections to the capital. Visitors will be encouraged to undertake their own mini-pilgrimage through the museum’s Medieval London Gallery from 14 February to October 2020. The display will deal with Thomas Becket the man and his early life in London, his exile and murder, the impact of his death and rise in miracle cures and finally, Becket’s shrine and the Jubilee of the Martyrdom in 1220.

25 February - Lecture on Becket & London by Prof Caroline Barron, Mercers' Hall, London

26 March - "The two Thomases" talk by Dean of Hereford, Hereford Cathedral

27 March - Annual Thomas Becket Lecture, a talk by Lord Rowan Williams on ‘Bede and Canterbury’ to anticipate the opening of the Medieval Canterbury Weekend (Venue: Canterbury Christ Church University).

3-5 April - Medieval Canterbury Weekend. 3-5 April 2020. Includes 'Becket was a Londoner' lecture on 5/4/20). Venue: Canterbury Christ Church University https://www.canterbury.ac.uk/arts-and-humanities/school-of-humanities/medieval-canterbury-weekend/medieval-canterbury-weekend.aspx

April to October 2020 - Canterbury Cathedral Eastern Crypt set aside as Pilgrimage Chapel for Becket2020

16 May – 27 September - ‘Becket - World Celebrity Healer’ exhibition at The Beaney House of Art and Knowledge, Canterbury https://canterburymuseums.co.uk/events/saint-thomas-becket-world-celebrity-healer/

18 May - ‘Church, Saints and Seals, 1150-1300’ (a one-day conference at Canterbury Cathedral and Canterbury Christ Church University).

24 May - Friends of Southwark Cathedral pilgrimage set off from London to Canterbury Cathedral. Arrive 1st June

30 May - Day of Prayer and Pilgrimage, plus Beacon Event (Canterbury Cathedral)

25 June–2 July – King’s Week (The King’s School, Canterbury) will include Becket-themed events.

27 June – Becket on Film screenings (Dr Tim Jones, Canterbury Christ Church University)

Late June (one of the final two weekends) - London pageant, Guildhall Yard (Emmeline Winterbotham)

4 July - Canterbury Medieval Pageant and Family Trail (An annual Becket-themed community event, led by the Canterbury Business Improvement District, involving community groups, re-enactors, and heritage organisations across the city).

4 July - Blessing of Becket Copes at Evensong (Canterbury Cathedral)

4 July – An evening screening of the 1960s film ‘Becket’ at the Gulbenkian (Venue: University of Kent, Canterbury).

5 July – Canterbury Cathedral major service for the Translation of Becket. 10.00 Eucharist, 15.00 ecumenical service

6th July - 31st Dec 2020 - "The Two Thomases" Exhibition at Hereford Cathedral

7 July - St Thomas Day

19 July – Canterbury Cathedral’s ‘Night of the Cathedral’ event 17.30 - 21.00

July (date TBC) - Film Screening by Dr Tim Jones of the 1970 anniversary of Becket’s martyrdom (Venue: Canterbury Christ Church University).

26 August - Pilgrimage Visit to Canterbury Cathedral from the Friends of Hereford Cathedral

Late August / September – A 3-week exhibition and series of talks on Kentish saints (Venue: Centre for Kent History and Heritage, in partnership with Canterbury Archaeological Trust, the Kent Archaeological Society and other local partners):

  • Monday 31 August: St Martin's: An introduction to the cult of saints: Dr Sarah James (University of Kent)
  • Tuesday 1 September: St Paul's: Early Episcopal Saints: Dr Diane Heath (CCCU)
  • Wednesday 2 September: St Mildred's: Anglo-Saxon female saints: Dr Hilary Powell (CCCU)
  • Thursday 3 September: St Dunstan's: ‘Conflicting convictions:  martyrs of the 16th century’: Dr Doreen Rosman (retired, University of Kent)
  • Friday 4 September: St Peter's: Late medieval minor and failed cults: Dr Sheila Sweetinburgh (CCCU)
  • Saturday 5 September: St Thomas RC church: St Thomas of Canterbury: Professor Rachel Koopmans (York University, Toronto)

September - A Sandwich to Canterbury relay walk (incorporating local parishes between Sandwich and Canterbury - tbc).

September – The Annual Education Day hosted by the Canterbury Tales Attraction with local partners.

September – Heritage Open Days will have a Becket theme.

19 September - Canterbury Cathedral Friends ‘Friends Day’, for members only, with a Becket theme (Venue: Canterbury Cathedral).

27 September - Lees Court Singing Compline for Becket at Canterbury Cathedral

3 October - Joint Evensong Portsmouth & Dio Pilgrimage (Canterbury Cathedral)

15 Oct 2020 onwards - British Museum Thomas Becket exhibition, London (end date and title TBC)

22-24 Oct 2020 - Murder in the Cathedral in Canterbury Cathedral. Major joint production with Marlowe Theatre.

27-29 Oct 2020 - Canterbury Cathedral: Big Draw and Childrens Pilgrimage activities

11-13/14 November – ‘Thomas Becket: Life, Death and Legacy’ Conference (Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury Christ Church University and University of Kent – dates and keynotes confirmed including Prof. Anne Duggan, Prof. Rachel Koopmans, Prof. Alec Ryrie, Prof. Nick Vincent, Dr Paul Webster; Venue: Canterbury Cathedral; funded by the British Academy).

29 December – Special choral evensong service to commemorate Becket’s martyrdom (Venue: Canterbury Cathedral).

Other Canterbury events in planning include:

  • Annual Anselm Lecture (University of Kent at Canterbury – date tbc).
  • St Dunstan’s Church, Canterbury, will produce a leaflet on Henry II and Becket.
  • St Thomas’s Church, Canterbury, will have a musical event, a possible exhibition and has a strong interest in pilgrimage.
  • The Canterbury Society will also host a Becket-related talk.
  • The St Dunstan’s underpass in Canterbury will have a new mural depicting medieval pilgrims through to modern students.
  • Canterbury Archaeological Trust Activities: (1) a workshop on Canterbury in the age of Becket, with object handling; (2) holding one or more walking tours of Canterbury in the age of Becket; (3) running an East Kent tour of individual sites (monuments, churches, etc.); (4) developing Apps for 20 centuries of Canterbury; and (5) producing a new book on Canterbury and a new map of Canterbury.

Other events to be aware of:

  • Lambeth 2020. 27 July - 1 Aug 2020 (University of Kent and Canterbury Cathedral)
  • The Open Golf, 12-19 July 2020 Sandwich, Kent
  • Canterbury Festival (17-31 October 2020)

 

Press release for the 2020 programme commemorating the murder of Thomas Becket from the British Museum


Archaeologists find Bronze Age tombs lined with gold near the Griffin Warrior

Archaeologists find Bronze Age tombs lined with gold

The family tombs are near the 2015 site of the 'Griffin Warrior,' a military leader buried with armor, weapons and jewelry.

A gold ring depicts bulls and barley, the first known representation of domesticated animals and agriculture in ancient Greece. Credits: UC Classics

Archaeologists with the University of Cincinnati have discovered two Bronze Age tombs containing a trove of engraved jewelry and artifacts that promise to unlock secrets about life in ancient Greece.

The UC archaeologists announced the discovery Tuesday in Greece.

Jack Davis and Sharon Stocker, archaeologists in UC's classics department, found the two beehive-shaped tombs in Pylos, Greece, last year while investigating the area around the grave of an individual they have called the "Griffin Warrior," a Greek man whose final resting place they discovered nearby in 2015.

Like the Griffin Warrior's tomb, the princely tombs overlooking the Mediterranean Sea also contained a wealth of cultural artifacts and delicate jewelry that could help historians fill in gaps in our knowledge of early Greek civilization.

UC's team spent more than 18 months excavating and documenting the find. The tombs were littered with flakes of gold leaf that once papered the walls.

"Like with the Griffin Warrior grave, by the end of the first week we knew we had something that was really important," said Stocker, who supervised the excavation.

"It soon became clear to us that lightning had struck again," said Davis, head of UC's classics department.

Bronze Age Tombs Griffin Warrior Pylos
UC archaeologists discovered two large family tombs at Pylos, Greece, strewn with flakes of gold that once lined their walls. The excavation took more than 18 months. Credits: UC Classics

The Griffin Warrior is named for the mythological creature -- part eagle, part lion -- engraved on an ivory plaque in his tomb, which also contained armor, weaponry and gold jewelry. Among the priceless objects of art was an agate sealstone depicting mortal combat with such fine detail that Archaeology magazine hailed it as a "Bronze Age masterpiece."

Artifacts found in the princely tombs tell similar stories about life along the Mediterranean 3,500 years ago, Davis said. A gold ring depicted two bulls flanked by sheaves of grain, identified as barley by a paleobotanist who consulted on the project.

"It's an interesting scene of animal husbandry -- cattle mixed with grain production. It's the foundation of agriculture," Davis said. "As far as we know, it's the only representation of grain in the art of Crete or Minoan civilization."

UC archaeologists found a sealstone made from semiprecious carnelian in the family tombs at Pylos, Greece. The sealstone was engraved with two lionlike mythological figures called genii carrying serving vessels and incense burners facing each other over an altar and below a 16-pointed star. The other image is a putty cast of the sealstone. Credits: UC Classics

Like the grave of the Griffin Warrior, the two family tombs contained artwork emblazoned with mythological creatures. An agate sealstone featured two lion-like creatures called genii standing upright on clawed feet. They carry a serving vase and an incense burner, a tribute for the altar before them featuring a sprouting sapling between horns of consecration, Stocker said.

Above the genii is a 16-pointed star. The same 16-pointed star also appears on a bronze and gold artifact in the grave, she said.

"It's rare. There aren't many 16-pointed stars in Mycenaean iconography. The fact that we have two objects with 16 points in two different media (agate and gold) is noteworthy," Stocker said.

The genius motif appears elsewhere in the East during this period, she said.

"One problem is we don't have any writing from the Minoan or Mycenaean time that talks of their religion or explains the importance of their symbols," Stocker said.

UC's team also found a gold pendant featuring the likeness of the Egyptian goddess Hathor.

"Its discovery is particularly interesting in light of the role she played in Egypt as protectress of the dead," Davis said.

The identity of the Griffin Warrior is a matter for speculation. Stocker said the combination of armor, weapons and jewelry found in his tomb strongly indicate he had military and religious authority, likely as the king known in later Mycenaean times as a wanax.

Likewise, the princely tombs paint a picture of accumulated wealth and status, she said. They contained amber from the Baltic, amethyst from Egypt, imported carnelian and lots of gold. The tombs sit on a scenic vista overlooking the Mediterranean Sea on the spot where the Palace of Nestor would later rise and fall to ruins.

"I think these are probably people who were very sophisticated for their time," she said. "They have come out of a place in history where there were few luxury items and imported goods. And all of a sudden at the time of the first tholos tombs, luxury items appear in Greece.

"You have this explosion of wealth. People are vying for power," she said. "It's the formative years that will give rise to the Classic Age of Greece."

The antiquities provide evidence that coastal Pylos was once an important destination for commerce and trade.

"If you look at a map, Pylos is a remote area now. You have to cross mountains to get here. Until recently, it hasn't even been on the tourist path," Stocker said. "But if you're coming by sea, the location makes more sense. It's on the way to Italy. What we're learning is that it's a much more central and important place on the Bronze Age trade route."

The princely tombs sit close to the palace of Nestor, a ruler mentioned in Homer's famous works "The Iliad" and "The Odyssey." The palace was discovered in 1939 by the late UC Classics professor Carl Blegen. Blegen had wanted to excavate in the 1950s in the field where Davis and Stocker found the new tombs but could not get permission from the property owner to expand his investigation. The tombs would have to wait years for another UC team to make the startling discovery hidden beneath its grape vines.

Excavating the site was particularly arduous. With the excavation season looming, delays in procuring the site forced researchers to postpone plans to study the site first with ground-penetrating radar. Instead, Stocker and Davis relied on their experience and intuition to focus on one disturbed area.

"There were noticeable concentrations of rocks on the surface once we got rid of the vegetation," she said.

Those turned out to be the exposed covers of deep tombs, one plunging nearly 15 feet. The tombs were protected from the elements and potential thieves by an estimated 40,000 stones the size of watermelons.

The boulders had sat undisturbed for millennia where they had fallen when the domes of the tombs collapsed. And now 3,500 years later, UC's team had to remove each stone individually.

"It was like going back to the Mycenaean Period. They had placed them by hand in the walls of the tombs and we were taking them out by hand," Stocker said. "It was a lot of work."

At every step of the excavation, the researchers used photogrammetry and digital mapping to document the location and orientation of objects in the tomb. This is especially valuable because of the great number of artifacts that were recovered, Davis said.

"We can see all levels as we excavated them and relate them one to the other in three dimensions," he said. UC's team will continue working at Pylos for at least the next two years while they and other researchers around the world unravel mysteries contained in the artifacts.

"It has been 50 years since any substantial tombs of this sort have been found at any Bronze Age palatial site. That makes this extraordinary," Davis said.

 

Press release from the University of Cincinnati, by Michael Miller.


timber Roman timber trade trading

Long-distance timber trade underpinned the Roman Empire's construction

Long-distance timber trade underpinned the Roman Empire's construction

timber Roman timber trade trading
Some of the oak planks in situ in the foundation of the portico. Credit: Bernabei at al., 2019, CC-BY

The ancient Romans relied on long-distance timber trading to construct their empire, according to a study published December 4, 2019 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Mauro Bernabei from the National Research Council, Italy, and colleagues.

The timber requirements of ancient Rome were immense and complex, with different types of trees from various locations around the Roman Empire and beyond used for many purposes, including construction, shipbuilding and firewood. Unfortunately, the timber trade in ancient Rome is poorly understood, as little wood has been found in a state adequate for analysis. In this study, Bernabei et al successfully date and determine the origin and chronology of unusually well-preserved ancient Roman timber samples.

The twenty-four oak timber planks (Quercus species) analyzed in this study were excavated during Metro construction in Rome during 2014-2016. They formed part of a Roman portico in the gardens of via Sannio (belonging to what was once a lavishly decorated and rich property). The authors measured the tree-ring widths for each plank and ran statistical tests to determine average chronology, successfully dating thirteen of the planks.

By comparing their dated planks to Mediterranean and central European oak reference chronologies, the authors found that the oaks used for the Roman portico planks were taken from the Jura mountains in eastern France, over 1700km away. Based on the sapwood present in 8 of the thirteen samples, the authors were able to narrow the date these oaks were felled to between 40 and 60 CE and determined that the planks all came from neighboring trees. Given the timber's dimensions and the vast distance it travelled, the authors suggest that ancient Romans (or their traders) likely floated the timber down the Saône and Rhône rivers in present-day France before transporting it over the Mediterranean Sea and then up the river Tiber to Rome, though this cannot be confirmed.

The authors note that the difficulty of obtaining these planks--which were not specially sourced for an aesthetic function but used in the portico's foundations--suggests that the logistical organization of ancient Rome was considerable, and that their trade network was highly advanced.

Bernabei notes: "This study shows that in Roman times, wood from the near-natural woodlands of north-eastern France was used for construction purposes in the centre of Rome. Considering the distance, calculated to be over 1700km, the timber sizes, [and] the means of transportation with all the possible obstacles along the way, our research emphasises the importance of wood for the Romans and the powerful logistic organisation of the Roman society."

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Citation: Bernabei M, Bontadi J, Rea R, Büntgen U, Tegel W (2019) Dendrochronological evidence for long-distance timber trading in the Roman Empire. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0224077. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224077

Funding: WT received funding from the German Research Foundation (DFG, TE 613/3-2). UB received funding from the Czech Republic Grant Agency (17-22102s).

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

 

Press release from the Public Library of Sciences.